Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In the past decade CVD has been the cause of over one-third of all premature deaths in Australia. The conventional risk factors for CVD include hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diabetes mellitus. However, in an individual the presence of only one of these factors has a low positive predictive value. The most advanced strategy for coronary risk assessment is therefore to combine the information of several risk factors; a ‘multi-marker’ approach which enhances risk stratification.